This systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 studies involving 254 408 patients assessed whether AKI associates with long-term cardiovascular disease. AKI associated with an 86% and a 38% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events, respectively ([RR 1.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.72 to 2.01] and [RR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.55], respectively), particularly heart failure [58% increased risk of heart failure (RR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.72)] and acute myocardial infarction [40% increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (RR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.59)]
- Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effects of Antiplatelet Therapy on Mortality and Cardiovascular and Bleeding Outcomes in Persons With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
- Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Persons With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.